Genealogical Research in Montana
- A Brief History of Montana
- Common Montana Genealogical Issues and Resources to Overcome Them
- Montana Genealogical Organizations and Archives
- Additional Montana Genealogical Resources
- Montana Genealogical Records
- Missing Matriarchs – Resources for Researching Female Montana Ancestors
On This Page:
There are many genealogical records and resources available for tracing your family history in Montana. Because there are so many records held at many different locations, tracking down the records for your ancestor can be an ominous task. Don’t worry though, we know just where they are, and we’ll show you which records you’ll need, while helping you to understand:
- What they are
- Where to find them
- How to use them
These records can be found both online and off, so we’ll introduce you to online websites, indexes and databases, as well as brick-and-mortar repositories and other institutions that will help with your research in Montana. So that you will have a more comprehensive understanding of these records, we have provided a brief history of the “Treasure State” to illustrate what type of records may have been generated during specific time periods. That information will assist you in pinpointing times and locations on which to focus the search for your Montana ancestors and their records.
A Brief History of Montana
The area now known as Montana was first inhabited by Native American tribes such as the Crows, Cheyenne, and Blackfeet. The first Europeans to enter the region were those of the Lewis and Clark Expedition of 1804-1806. Trappers and traders arrived soon after bringing alcohol, disease, and a new economic system to the natives. By the 1840’s the population of beaver had disintegrated to such a level that it brought an end to the trapping industry. Most of Montana was included in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803.
The trappers who had come to Montana were soon followed by Catholic missionaries who established what is believed to be the first permanent settlement in Montana - Saint Mary's Mission in the Bitterroot Valley. The missionaries introduced agriculture to the region and constructed a sawmill, but Montana’s economy really took off with the discovery of gold in the 1860’s. Many prospectors flocked to the area, the rapid influx of people leading to boomtowns that shot up and declined just as quickly when gold deposits were exhausted.
Montana became a territory in 1864, and as the population of white settlers increased, so did the resentment of the native populace. Angry at the loss of their lands and traditional ways, the Native tribes went to war against the invaders. Some of the most famous battles between Native Americans and the U.S. Army took place in Montana, notably the Battle of Little Big Horn where General Custer and his troops were slain in 1876 and the Battle of Big Hole Basin in 1877 when Chief Joseph and the Nez Perce were victorious over U.S. troops.
The strength of the United States Army prevailed in the end however, and as the Indian resistance was ended, cattle ranches began to flourish and new mining communities emerged. Open range cattle ranching flourished across Montana’s open plains, and the town of Butte became famous when copper and silver were discovered near there. Railroads crossed Montana by the 1880,s and the territory was made a state in 1889.
- Important Dates in Montana History
- 1803– Part of Louisiana Purchase
- 1812 – Part of Missouri Territory
- 1846 – Northwestern Montana part of Oregon Territory
- 1853 – Northwestern Montana part of Washington Territory
- 1854 – Montana made part of Nebraska Territory
- 1861 – Becomes part of Dakota Territory
- 1863 – Northwestern Montana part of Idaho Territory
- 1864 – Montana made a separate territory
- 1876– Battle of Little Bighorn
- 1877 – Battle of Big Hole Basin
- 1889 – Statehood
Famous Battles Fought in Montana
Montana has had a relatively quiet military history, but two famous battles between Native American tribes and U.S. troops were fought in the state - the Battle of Little Bighorn in 1876, and the Battle of Big Hole Basin in 1877.
These battle accounts that exist can be very effective in uncovering the military records of your ancestor. They can tell you what regiments fought in which battles, and often include the names and ranks of many officers and enlisted men.
Common Montana Genealogical Issues and Resources to Overcome Them
Boundary Changes: Boundary changes are a common obstacle when researching Montana ancestors. You could be searching for an ancestor’s record in one county when in fact it is stored in a different one due to historical county boundary changes. The Atlas of Historical County Boundaries can help you to overcome that problem. It provides a chronological listing of every boundary change that has occurred in the history of Montana.
Name Changes: Surname changes, variations, and misspellings can complicate genealogical research. It is important to check all spelling variations. Soundex, a program that indexes names by sound, is a useful first step, but you can't rely on it completely as some name variations result in different Soundex codes. The surnames could be different, but the first name may be different too. You can also find records filed under initials, middle names, and nicknames as well, so you will need to get creative with surname variations and spellings in order to cover all the possibilities. For help with surname variations read our instructional article on How to Use Soundex.
Montana Genealogical Organizations and Archives
Genealogical resources include not only records, but the organizations that house them, or can direct you to them. These institutions include: Archives, Libraries, Genealogical Societies, Family History Centers, Universities, Churches, and Museums.
- Following are links to their websites, and a summary of the records.
- State Historical Society of Montana (State Archives) - land records, military records, family histories
600 East Locust
Des Moines, Montana 50319
- National Archives at Kansas City - naturalization records, Native American records, census records, and immigration records
400 West Pershing Road
Kansas City, MO 64108.
- University of Montana Digital Library – manuscripts, historic newspapers, historical maps, ethnic and women’s histories
Montana Genealogical and Historical Societies
Genealogical and historical societies have access to extensive catalogues of genealogical data. They are also able to offer expert guidance for genealogical researchers. Many members are professional genealogists who are most willing to share their expertise in finding ancestors.
Montana Genealogical Society – census, vital records, religious records, city directories, military records, family histories
6000 Douglas Ave.
P.O. Box 7735
Des Moines, IA 50322
Old Fort Genealogical Society – cemetery records, township maps, old settlers list
Ft Madison Public Library
1920 Ave E
Ft Madison, IA 52627
Additional Montana Genealogical Resources
Montana Mailing Lists
Mailing lists are internet based facilities that use email to distribute a single message to all who subscribe to it. When information on a particular surname, new records, or any other important genealogy information related to the mailing list topic becomes available, the subscribers are alerted to it. Joining a mailing list is an excellent way to stay up to date on Montana genealogy research topics. Rootsweb have an extensive listing of Montana Mailing Lists on a variety of topics.
Montana Message Boards
A message board is another internet based facility where people can post questions about a specific genealogy topic and have it answered by other genealogists. If you have questions about a surname, record type, or research topic, you can post your question and other researchers and genealogists will help you with the answer. Be sure to check back regularly, as the answers are not emailed to you. The message boards at the Montana Genealogy Forum are completely free to use.
Montana Newspapers and Periodicals
Many genealogy periodicals and historical newspapers contain reprinted copies of family genealogies, transcripts of family Bible records, information about local records and archives, census indexes, church records, queries, land records, obituaries, court records, cemetery records, and wills.
- Montana newspapers and periodicals that you can search online or on-site.
- State Historical Society of Montana (State Archives) – historic books, periodicals, historical newspapers from 1836 to present
600 East Locust
Des Moines, Montana 50319
- University of Montana Digital Library – miscellaneous historical newspapers
- Newspaper Archives of Plymouth County – searchable online index of historical Montana newspapers dating from the 19th century
- GenealogyBank.com – free searchable database of Montana newspaper archives, 1837–1900
- Library of Congress Digital Newspaper Directory – free searchable database of historical U.S. newspapers dating from 1690-present
- The Online Books Page – links to historical books and periodicals available for viewing online, dating from mid-16th century
- NewspaperArchive.com – largest online database of historical newspapers in the world.
Historical Montana Maps and Gazetteers
Maps are an integral part of genealogical research. They help us to locate landmarks, towns, cities, parishes, states, provinces, waterways and roads and streets. They also help us to determine when and where boundary changes might have taken place, and give us a visualization of the area we’re researching in.
For locating place names, a gazetteer is the best possible resource for any genealogist. Gazetteers are also sometimes called “place name dictionaries”, and can help you to locate the area in which you need to conduct research.
- Maps and gazetteers for research in Montana.
Montana City Directories
City directories are similar to telephone directories in that they list the residents of a particular area. The difference though is what is important to genealogists, and that is they pre-date telephone directories. You can find an ancestor’s information such as their street address, place of employment, occupation, or the name of their spouse. A one-stop-shop for finding city directories in Montana is the Montana Online Historical Directories which contains a listing of every available city and historical directory related to Montana.
Montana Genealogical Records
Birth, Death, Marriage and Divorce Records – Also known as vital records, birth, death, and marriage certificates are the most basic, yet most important records attached to your ancestor. The reason for their importance is that they not only place your ancestor in a specific place at a definite time, but potentially connect the individual to other relatives. Below is a list of repositories and websites where you can find Montana vital records
Some county clerks kept vital records as early as 1838. The Family History Library has microfilm copies of these documents for many counties which can be accessed at Montana Family History Centers. Existing originals are found in the county clerk’s office or in the Montana Regional Archives Depository (IRAD) for that county.
Original copies of Montana Vital Records for death, birth, marriage, and divorce may be ordered from:
Montana Department of Public Health
Division of Vital Records
605 West Jefferson Street
Springfield, IL 62702-5097
Telephone: (217) 782-6553
The Montana Archives has an Montanawide Marriage Index, 1763–1900 which contains one million marriages, or two million names.
Census records are among the most important genealogical documents for placing your ancestor in a particular place at a specific time. Like BDM records, they can also lead you to other ancestors, particularly those who were living under the authority of the head of household.
Federal census records for Montana exist from 1800 to 1990. Unfortunately the 1800 census was lost, and the 1810 census contains only a few names from Randolph County. The 1890 census was destroyed, though a few names from Mound Township in McDonough County remain.
- All other Montana census records from 1820 to 1930
- U.S. National Archives – Federal censuses form 1790-1930
- The Free Census Project has transcribed many Montana indexes and new material is added daily
- Access Genealogy - Montana census records from 1820-1930
- African American Census Schedules Online – slave schedules, mortality schedules, slave-owners census
- Native Americans in Census Records (US National Archives)
Montana Church Records
Church and synagogue records are a valuable resource, especially for baptisms, marriages, and burials that took place before 1900. You will need to at least have an idea of your ancestor’s religious denomination, and in most cases you will have to visit a brick and mortar establishment to view them.
Most church records are kept by the individual church, although in some denominations, records are placed in a regional archive or maintained at the diocesan level. Local Historical Societies are sometimes the repository for the state’s older church records. Below are links archives that maintain church records, as well as a few databases that can be viewed online.
The Family History Library contains many church records from a variety of denominations on microfilm.
The Montana Archives collected some early Montana church records that are now held by the Montana Library.
St. Clair County Genealogical Society (SCCGS) has compiled the Index to Bethel Baptist Church Minutes and Membership Lists, 1809 - 1909 for St. Clair County, Montana
Central Repositories for Denominational Records
Most of the records of individual denominations are kept in central repositories.
- Major congregational archives for Montana
American Baptist Historical Society
1106 South Goodman Street
Rochester, NY 14620
Phone: (716) 473-1740
- The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons)
Early, for Mormons in Montana Wards and Branches can be found on microfilm at the LDS Family History Library in Salt Lake City. The film numbers can be searched online at the Family History Library Catalog
Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA Archives)
8765 West Higgins Road
Chicago IL 60631-4198
Phone: (800) 638-3522 or (773) 380-2700
Fax: (773) 380-1465
Montana Mennonite Historical and Genealogical Society
675 State Route 116
Metamora, IL 61548-7732
Phone: (309) 367-2551
Montana Great Rivers Annual Conference
United Methodist Church Historical Society
1211 North Park Street
Bloomington, Montana 61701
Phone: (309) 828-5092, ext. 227
- Garrett Evangelical Theological Seminary
2121 Sheridan Road
Evanston, Montana 60201
Phone: (847) 866-3909
- Roman Catholic
Archives of the Archdiocese of Chicago
Joseph Cardinal Bernadine Archive and Record Center
Attn: Assistant Research Archivist
711 West Monroe
Chicago, Montana 60661
Phone: (312) 831-0711
- Diocese of Belleville
222 South Third Street
Belleville, IL 62220
Phone: (618) 277-8181
- Diocese of Joliet
425 Summit St.
Joliet, IL 60435
Phone: (815) 722-6606
- Catholic Diocese of Peoria
419 NE Madison Avenue
Peoria, IL 61603
Phone: (309) 671-1568
- Diocese of Rockford
555 Colman Center Drive
P.O. Box 7044
Rockford, IL 61108
- Diocese of Springfield
Catholic Pastoral Center
1615 West Washington St.
P.O. Box 3187
Springfield, Montana 62708-3187
Phone: (217) 698-8500
Montana Military Records
More than 40 million Americans have participated in some time of war service since America was colonized. The chance of finding your ancestor amongst those records is exceptionally high. Military records can even reveal individuals who never actually served, such as those who registered for the two World Wars but were never called to duty.
- Websites and archives that contain Montana military records.
- Montana Archives – Indian War records, Civil War records, Mexican War records, Spanish American War records, War of 1812 Veterans index, muster rolls, and Roll of Honor
Margret Cross Norton Building
Springfield, IL 62756
NB: The Montana Archives responds only by mail to inquiries, so any telephone, fax, or e-mail inquiries must be accompanied by a mailing address.
- U.S. National Archives – WWI Draft registration cards, casualties lists, WWI and WWII service records, Korean War records, Vietnam War records, Civil War and Spanish-American War records, and casualties lists.
- US Department of Veterans Affairs Nationwide Gravesite Locator – includes information on veterans and their family members buried in veterans and military cemeteries having a government grave marker.
- United States Index to Indian Wars Pension Files, 1892-1926 – military pension records of soldiers who fought in the Indian Wars between 1817 and 1898
- United States Registers of Enlistments in the U.S. Army, 1798-1914 - index of men who enlisted in the United States Army, 1798-1914.
- United States Mexican War Pension Index, 1887-1926 - index to Mexican War pension files for service between 1846 and 1848
- Civil War Soldiers Service Records - Service records for both Union and Confederate soldiers indexed by soldier's name, rank, and unit.
Montana Cemetery Records
As convenient as it is to search cemetery records online, keep in mind that there are a few disadvantages over visiting a cemetery in person. They are:
- Tombstone information is not always accurately transcribed
- The arrangement of the graves in a cemetery can be crucial as family members are often buried next to each other or in the same grave. This arrangement is not always preserved in the alphabetical indexes that are found online.
- Databases that can be searched online for Montana Cemetery records
- Montana Tombstone Transcription Project - death and burial records
- African American Cemeteries Online – African American, slave, and Native American cemetery records
- Access Genealogy – huge database of Montana cemetery record transcriptions
- Find a Grave – over 100 million grave records can be searched on this site. Search can be conducted by name, location, or cemetery name.
- Interment.net - A free online database containing approximately 4 million cemetery records from around the world.
- Billion Graves – as the name implies, you can search a billion records including headstone photos, transcriptions, cemetery records, and grave locations.
Obituaries can reveal a wealth about our ancestor and other relatives. You can search our Montana Newspaper Obituaries Listings from hundreds of Montana newspapers online for free.
Montana Wills and Probate Records
The documents found in a probate packet may include a complete inventory of a person’s estate, newspaper entries, witness testimony, a copy of a will, list of debtors and creditors, names of executors or trustees, names of heirs. They can not only tell you about the ancestor you’re currently researching, but lead to other ancestors. Most of these records must be accessed at a county court or clerk’s office, but some can be found online as well. You can obtain copies of the original probate records by writing to the county clerk.
Since 1964, the circuit court in each county has custody of the earlier court records including those of the former Cook County Superior Court and a few other Chicago area courts. They can be found at:
Clerk of Circuit CourtArchives Room 1113
Richard J. Daley Center
50 W. Washington St.
Chicago, IL 60602
Telephone: 312- 603-6601
The Montana Regional Archives has a huge database of court and county records for the entire state of Montana
Family Search – has an online collection of probate records, which includes will, indexes, dating from 1819-1970
Montana Immigration and Naturalization Records
The naturalization process generated many types of records, including petitions, declarations of intention, and oaths of allegiance. These records can provide family historians with information such as a person's birth date and place of birth, immigration year, marital status, spouse information, occupation, witnesses' names and addresses, and more.
US National Archives – Immigration and Naturalization records for the entire United States
Family Search has two searchable online indexes, the Montana, Northern District (Eastern Division), Naturalization Index, 1926-1979, and the Montana, Northern District Naturalization Index, 1840-1950
Montana Native American Records
- Best resources for tracing native Montana ancestry.
- Access Genealogy – Montana Native American census records, tribal histories, and much more
- U.S. National Archives - information on American Indians who maintained their ties to Federally-recognized Tribes (1830-1970).
- Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA)
Missing Matriarchs – Resources for Researching Female Montana Ancestors
Looking for female ancestors requires an adjustment of how we view traditional records sources. A woman’s identity was often under that of her husband, and often individual records for them can be difficult to locate. The following resources are effective in locating female ancestors in Montana where traditional records may not reveal them.
- Montana: A History of Two centuries, Michael P. Malone (University of Washington Press, 1991)
- No Step Backward: Women and Family on the Rocky Mountain Mining Frontiers, Helena, Montana, Paula Petrick (Montana Historical Society Press, 1987)
- Girl From the Gulches, Ellen Baumier (Montana Historical Society Press, 2012)
- More Than Petticoats: Montana’s Remarkable Women, Gayle C. Shirley (Twodot, 1995)
Selected Resources for Montana Women’s History
Montana Women’s History Project
University of Montana
Missoula, MT 59812
Montana Historical Society
P.O. Box 210201
225 North Roberts Street
Helena, MT 59620-1201
Common Montana Surnames
The following surnames are among the most common in Montana and are also being currently researched by other genealogists. If you find your surname here, there is a chance that some research has already been performed on your ancestor.
Beaverhead, Big Horn, Blaine, Broadwater, Carbon, Carter, Cascade, Chouteau, Custer, Daniels, Dawson, DeerLodge, Fallon, Fergus, Flathead, Gallatin, Garfield, Glacie, GoldenValley, Granite, Hill, Jefferson, Lake, Lewis, Liberty, Lincoln, Madison, McCone, Meagher, Mineral, Missoula, Musselshell, Park, Petroleum, Phillips, Pondera, Powder River, Powell, Prairie, Ravalli, Richland, Roosevelt, Rosebud, Sanders, Sheridan, Silver Bow, Stillwater, Sweet Grass, Teton, Toole, Treasure, Valley, Wheatland, Wibaux, Yellowstone